Germany produced two of Utah's most famous architects: Richard K. The decades between and World War I saw a steady increase in the number of German-born immigrants coming to Utah. Although there were only sixty German or Swiss residents in the Utah Territory in , by the number had reached 7, While this figure equalled only about two percent of the total state population of ,, the German presence was felt in a number of areas beyond those of education, mining, and architecture which have been mentioned. John Held's band played concerts from the s to the s.
Alexander Schreiner, a immigrant from Nuremberg, became the best known of all the Salt Lake Tabernacle organists. As German immigration peaked around the turn of the century, German organizations flourished. The Salt Lake Beobachter , begun in , was a German-language newspaper which served to foster the German language in Utah, provide news of the homeland, and maintain a network for German-born immigrants residing not only in Utah communities but also in Idaho and Wyoming. Deeply concerned about events affecting their former homeland, most Utah Germans demonstrated their loyalty to Germany from the war's outbreak in August until America's entry into the war in April Some returned to join the German army.
Most followed, as best they could, the fate of relatives and friends fighting on the eastern and western fronts. German-Americans resented the pro-English press and urged strict adherence to President Woodrow Wilson's neutrality policy. With the resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare by Germany, the United States entered the war as an ally of the British and French. Faced with the dilemma of perceived dual loyalties, Utah's German-Americans demonstrated their unswerving loyalty to the United States through meetings, parades, proclamations, the purchase of war bonds, fund-raising drives, registering for the draft, and joining the army.
Still, their loyalty often was suspect and German clubs, including the LDS German organization, were forced to suspend activities. Official action even was taken to end the teaching of German in Utah schools. However, unlike other parts of the country, the Salt Lake Beobachter was allowed to continue to be published but only under the masthead, "American in everything but language.
Fort Douglas was also the prison for enemy aliens, conscientious objectors, and others arrested for violations of wartime legislation. World War I halted immigration from Germany to Utah for nearly a decade.
By there were nearly 1, fewer German-born residents in Utah than in After about immigration resumed as a significant number of members of the LDS Church came to Utah. But they served only to slow the rate of decline in the number of German-born residents in Utah, as the newcomers only partially replaced the passing generation of nineteenth-century and turn-of-the-century immigrants. During the s, the combination of worldwide depression, felt especially severely in Utah, and the ascent of Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist Party in Germany, significantly reduced the number of German immigrants to Utah.
Whereas 7, German- and Swiss-born immigrants resided in Utah in , by the number had dropped to 4, Still, the s and early s was a period of significant activity as newly arrived young immigrants founded the Germania Athletic Club, sponsored outings, and performed choir concerts and German operettas in German. Germans marched proudly in Salt Lake City's July 24th parade and memorialized the German war dead through commemorations at the graves of German prisoners who died at Fort Douglas during and just after World War I. A monument to those twenty men was created by the German-born stonecarver and immigrant to Utah, Arlo Steineke, and dedicated on Memorial Day after an extensive fundraising campaign.
The largest number were interned at the Tooele and Ogden Defense depots.
Utah's German community was involved to a limited degree with the prisoners of war; some sought to carry out missionary work among them on behalf of the Mormon Church among them while others petitioned their representatives unsuccessfully trying to make arrangements for relatives and other members of the LDS Church to be sent to Utah. All prisoners of war were returned to Germany after the war. A few returned to Utah in the s along with more than 3, Germans who came primarily because of their ties to the LDS Church. By there were 5, German-born residents in Utah, nearly 1, more than the 4, residents in , but still two thousand fewer than the peak number of 7, in Many of the post-World War II arrivals had lost their homes in the eastern parts of Germany during the Russian advance and occupation that followed.
Others lost their homes during British and American bombing attacks. Many different forces drove them from their German homeland and pulled them to Utah. Once in Utah, many skilled workers were able to find ready employment, while others had to accept more menial positions. These postwar immigrants tried to adapt to the local way of life as quickly as possible. Some did this by severing all ties with Germany, German culture, and the German language as quickly as possible.
Fort Douglas Cemetery (UTFDCS)
SUMMARY: Woman, half length, wearing cap, sweater, and overalls, bending over filing a metal part, similar parts lined up on table beside her. A poster behind her showing a torn American flag bears the words, "[We] highly resolve that these dead [will] not have died in vain When the Kentucky watch case factory, for whom she has worked 20 years, converted to war production, this lady was ready to join the procession of war workers.
Actually it's a sand casting which is to be used for the armed forces. The young lady is giving it a professional once-over for defects. This work was formerly done by a man. Beaumont, Tex.
e-book Fort Douglas (Images of America)
TITLE: A laboratory assistant at a southern tin smelter performs delicate analytical operations that determine the amounts of pure metal remaining in slags from the furnaces. Accurate laboratory control is one of the important reasons by the percentage of metal recovery from the South American ore used at the plant is remarkably high. SUMMARY: Woman wearing apron standing at a table bearing laboratory equipment, pouring liquid from a flask while smoke drifts up towards her face. DATE: July.
Philadelphia, Penn. SUMMARY: Three women one crouched on right, one crouched on left, and one standing reaching up in middle working inside circular structure of the fuselage. DATE: Oct. Marcella Hart and Mrs. Viola Sievers. She's one of many capable women workers in the Douglas Aircraft Company plant Image used on OWI poster 52 see listing 32 below. SUMMARY: Woman working, framed by oval section of airplane; a man wearing an apron facing her on opposite side of the metal piece they are working on.
Division of Public Inquiries. Women are needed also as: farm workers, typists, salespeople, waitresses, bus drivers Employment Service. Employment Service War Manpower Commission. Hungerford, Pittsburgh, Pa. We won't let you down! America's women have met the test! See your U.
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Overseas Branch. DATE: [ca. Nearly three million women worked in defense plants during World War II. While many of the women had already been employed outside the home before the war, an increasing number of married and middle class women joined the work force during this period. Government propaganda and advertisements sought to encourage such work force participation. One of the best known symbols of this propaganda effort was "Rosie the Riveter.
Rockwell's image shows a muscular woman dressed in overalls, face mask and goggles resting on her forehead, seated eating a sandwich, her riveting tool in her lap, her feet resting on a copy of Mein Kampf. Two weeks after the cover illustration was published, stories appeared in the press extolling the achievement of Rose Hicker and her partner, workers at the Eastern Aircraft Company in Tarrytown, New York, who drove a record number of rivets into a wing of a Grumman "Avenger" Bomber.
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Real and legendary "Rosies" were not only depicted visually and in the press, but were also celebrated in song and even in a Broadway play, entitled "Rosie the Riveter. Sources that discuss women's World War II work force participation, with associated images include:.
Emeryville, Calif: Clarity Educational Productions, Gluck, Sherna Berger. Boston: Twayne, AU64 ]. Honey, Maureen.
Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, H66 ]. Rupp, Leila J. Some images will display only a thumbnail image when searching from outside the Library of Congress, because of rights considerations. Fruitful search terms include:. Even so, women do not occupy as many railroad jobs as they did during World War I, when , were employed at the peak. What kind of Americans would we be if we let anyone rob us of our Liberty?