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But she was mistaken; for when night came again, she heard the same tapping at the door, and when she opened it, the frog came in and slept upon her pillow as before till the morning broke; and the third night he did the same: but when the princess awoke on the following morning, she was astonished to see, instead of the frog, a handsome prince gazing on her with the most beautiful eyes that ever were seen, and standing at the head of her bed.

He told her that he had been enchanted by a malicious fairy, who had changed him into the form of a frog, in which he was fated to remain till some princess should take him out of the spring and let him sleep upon her bed for three nights. The edition has no comparable comment here. Some witch told you that! Yet we must remember that this is a commonplace occurrence in the transmission of fairytales, whether orally or in printed form. Every storyteller puts his or her own mark on the tale told. Where they used printed texts from the sixteenth to the early nineteenth centuries, the same kind of adaptation and homogenization is also to be seen.

At times it can be quite tricky to identify just which tale is being dealt with. This was a quite new book, as the translation was heavily revised and recast and contained a lot of additions in the nature of asides specifically addressed to a child audience.

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A number of the originally anonymous protagonists of the stories were given names, and some of the titles of the stories were changed. The tales in Gammer Grethel were arranged in a completely different sequence from German Popular Stories and designed to be read over a dozen evenings, with three or four tales per evening.

This contained a ten-page introduction by Ruskin. In any case his authorship and that of his friend David Jardine was not known until Certainly, it has charm and reads well, but it is a pity that Taylor and Jardine took so many liberties with the German text. While Edgar Taylor provides thirty-four tales of magic well over half the total , he does give eleven animal tales and eight comic tales. Hans, having taken his wages from his master, returns home to his mother and on the way makes a series of exchanges of what he has for something more attractive and immediately desirable to him, but less valuable in monetary terms.

When he finally gets home he has lost everything, but reaches home happy and free of all his troubles. Title-page and frontispiece of Unlucky John and his Lump of Silver. A Juvenile Comic Tale c. Other editions are known by A. Newman and Co. Rosewarne of Belper. In the original German Hans has a lump of gold, so Madame Leinstein was obviously using Taylor, who has a lump of silver, as her source.

The poem then ends with a moral:. Good stock of money at command, May oft a joy impart, Yet, squandered by a thoughtless hand, As oft afflicts the heart. The light-hearted spirit of the German tale has been turned into a moral lesson in the English poem. It hardly seems surprising that this is another very moral tale. Wright, He did not the incision feel, The scissors were of such sharp steel, And handled with such skill.

An Hour at Bearwood. The Wolf and the Seven Little Kids Illustration by George Nicol. But by the mid century it became the norm for such individual tales to be in prose. This included new translations of five tales that had already appeared in Taylor, so it did not introduce new material to the British public. Indeed, Cunningham frequently used Taylor in creating his own, generally more elaborate adaptation of Grimm.

1785 - 1863

More new material was provided by W. Of these only two had been translated by Taylor. Thoms, however, being an antiquary and folklore scholar, was not aiming his work at children, but rather at readers like himself who were interested in different cultural beliefs and practices. Valuable though his work was — and it was carefully translated rather than adapted — it did not have any impact on children.

It was so for the Grimms themselves, and Edgar Taylor shows in his notes and preface to German Popular Stories that he recognized this too. The fascination of legend for both adults and children is clearly demonstrated in the travel books about Germany, and particularly the Rhineland, that were written during most of the nineteenth century. London: James Burns, 2 vols. Little Red Cap is not eaten by the wolf, because just as he springs out of bed to do so a passing huntsman shoots and kills him with an arrow.

But since the grandmother is dead, this repeat episode has to replace her with an aunt. The next English translation to be made, following Taylor, Cunningham and Thoms, had the advantage of some additions and changes to the collection, though it was still not complete. He was a printer, but also translated eight other books during the period Five of the other books he translated were also by German writers and deal with current affairs and foreign travel.

The Fairy Ring proved popular enough to go into a revised and enlarged edition in , which was then republished by John Murray in There were also various American editions between and This had caused dismay among adult readers, so from the second edition onwards this detail was changed, and the girl thoughtlessly incriminates herself by remarking that her guardian is much heavier to pull up to the high window than the young prince.

It is not surprising, therefore, that most nineteenth-century translators leave the German name as it stands. Taylor opted for Violet and thus has the mother longing for sweet-smelling flowers rather than craving something to eat. Like most nineteenth-century translators he is unable to deal straightforwardly with pregnancy and childbirth.

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But the fairy herself is a mother-figure in disguise whose only function appears to be to guard her foster-daughter against sexual contact with the opposite sex. Rapunzel is imprisoned in a tower with no entrance apart from a very high window. However much the English translator tries not to speak about that most female of bodily experiences, pregnancy, the story works against him. The wild man then carries the boy away and sets him a series of tests that lead to his acquiring golden hair, a sexual attractiveness that first causes him embarrassment and only much later leads to sexual success.

It is one of their most important themes, and their many stories explore it with a wealth of reverberant imagery and motifs. But in the wake of the two Taylors, Cunningham and Thoms it was now possible to produce a much more comprehensive translation. Wehnert and proved one of the most popular nineteenth-century editions of the Grimms, being taken over by other publishers and reprinted in various guises up to the present day. It seems to be the element of religious superstition or perceived contravention of Biblical teaching that leads to the omission.

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Several of the titles they give to individual tales are oddly different from those given in other editions. As far as the protagonists of individual stories are concerned, the Addey and Co. Brothers Grimm, Household Stories. Newly Translated An American edition of Addey and Co. But the translation and illustrations achieved their greatest success through being taken over by George Routledge and Co. As Routledge had an office in New York as well as London, the book was assured of a wide circulation. From about the translation was issued by other publishers — George G.

Harrap, John F.

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Shaw, E. Dutton and Co. In addition to that issued by Addey and Co.

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None of them presented more than roughly two fifths of the complete corpus of tales, but clearly a variety of publishers wanted to cash in on the popularity that the Grimms now enjoyed. Despite this, selections from Davis have been included in several mainly early twentieth-century editions of Grimm. She solves the problem of treating religious matters in a humorous way by transposing the figures of God and St.

Peter into Jupiter and Mercury. Her work was not the commercial success that Routledge obviously found with the Addey and Co. Hablot K. Browne , who is renowned for his illustrations of Dickens. These vigorous illustrations are early examples of the colour printing of Edmund Evans, who became one of the great masters of this art. Once upon a time, there was a King, who, being old, and happening to fall ill, took it very much to heart, as old gentlemen do, and made up his mind to die, — which, my dear children, you must always remember, is half-way towards doing so.

So, impressed with this notion, he ordered his attendants to summon to his presence his Faithful John, a favourite servant and friend, whom he kept always about his person, as one who loved him for himself, and not for his grandeur, and could, therefore, be relied upon, whatever might betide. This is too indelicate for the translators to follow. No translator before Margaret Hunt translated this incident completely accurately.

What is interesting about this selection is the fact that so many short moral and religious tales are included, so that the emphasis is not overwhelmingly on the tales of magic. Bertall in fact made forty vignettes for a French edition, viz. Hachette et Cie, , and the Ward and Lock editions print almost all of them from stereotypes.