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Nation-building operations that have enjoyed local consent and regional support almost always have achieved peace. The Benefits of Nation-Building Interventions Have Exceeded the Costs Most interventions in the past 25 years have been followed by improved security, some degree of democratization, significant economic growth, and modest improvements in human development and government effectiveness. These outcomes have been achieved in most cases with only a modest commitment of international military and civilian manpower and economic assistance.
Modifying Geopolitical Circumstances and Co-Opting Patronage Networks Are Crucial Steps Toward Establishing Enduring Peace In the six case studies, the regional or global situation had a profound effect in fomenting or sustaining the conflicts, and changing those situations was crucial to the enduring termination of conflicts.
The international community had considerable success in altering the geopolitical sources of conflict in each of the six cases, but it had much less success in weakening the hold of patronage networks that were competing for wealth and power. Patronage networks often were co-opted into power-sharing arrangements that produced peace and even some modicum of democracy, but they could almost never be persuaded to support institutional and policy reforms that would curb their own rent-seeking capacity.
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Miller, Stephanie Pezard, Christopher S. Chivvis, Julie E. Also available in print form. Dobbins, James, Laurel E. PDF file. Best for desktop computers. The ex- colonizers wanted to retain their former colonial territories within their sphere of influence. This continued relationship, Fanon argued, benefited African politicians and the small middle class but did not benefit the national majorities. The result was tension between the ruling classes and the majority population.